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Chemical Agents: Facts About Evacuation
This page provides key information about evacuation and chemical agent exposure.

Chemical Agents: Facts About Sheltering in Place
Provides important information about sheltering in place when there has been exposure to a chemical agent.

Department of Health & Human Services

National Terrorism Threat Risk Increased
Last week, the federal Department of Homeland Security increased the national threat condition for risk of a terrorist attack from “elevated risk” (yellow) to “high risk” (orange), based on information received and analyzed by the U.S. intelligence community. On February 7, Jerome Hauer, Acting Assistant Secretary for Public Health and Emergency Preparedness, Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), briefed the nation’s state public health officials about the increased risk alert. Specific threat agents cited include botulism and ricin toxins, cyanide, VX and sarin nerve agents, and radiological dispersion devices (“dirty bombs”). HHS and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) are providing this information to assist the public health community in increasing their level of preparedness. More information is available at the CDC Web site (http://www.cdc.gov/). Additional materials will be posted at the following sites:

Botulism information: http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/botulism/

Radiation Emergency Response information: http://www.bt.cdc.gov/radiation/index.asp

Radiation facts for 1st Responders and Physicians: http://www.bt.cdc.gov/radiation/index.asp

Ricin information: http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/ricin/

General information about the health effects of terrorism threat agents is available at http://www.bt.cdc.gov/ and http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/

For questions, technical assistance, or to report an event, please call the CDC Emergency Operations Center at (770) 488-7100. More information will be provided once additional details are known.

Emergency Medical Services Authority (EMSA)
Emerging Infectious Disease Journal Article: Estimating Time and Size of Bioterror Attack
This article presents a Bayesian approach to estimating the details of a bioterror attack for use in real time, and is illustrated using data from a simulated anthrax attack.

HRSA (Health Resources and Services Administration)
Dirty Bomb Medical Treatment Resource


The Laboratory Response Network, Partners in Preparedness
The LRN is charged with the task of maintaining an integrated network of state and local public health, federal, military, and international laboratories that can respond to both bioterrorism and chemical terrorism.

National Academy Press
Biological Threats and Terrorism: Assessing the Science and Response Capabilities
In the wake of September 11th and recent anthrax events, our nation’s bioterrorism response capability has become a priority for policymakers, researchers, public health officials, academia and the private sector. The Forum on Emerging Infections released a summary of a workshop in which experts identified, clarified, and discussed the next steps to prepare and strengthen bio-terrorism response capabilities.

National Pharmaceutical Stockpile
The NPS is a large reserve of antibiotics, chemical antidotes and other medical supplies set aside for emergencies. The CDC reports that it has the capacity to move these stockpiled materials to affected areas in the U.S. within 12 hours of notification. There are a number of different stockpiles, strategically located around the country. In addition to the medical supplies already set aside, the federal government has made agreements with drug manufacturers to make large amounts of additional emergency medicine.

New York City Department of Health Response to Terrorist Attack, September 11, 2001

Public Health Assessment of Potential Biological Terrorism Agents

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
OSHA: The Anthrax Matrix
(November 2001)
Guides employers in assessing risk to their workers, providing appropriate protective equipment and specifying safe work practices for low, medium and high-risk levels in the workplace.

Statewide Program for Infection Control and Epidemiology (SPICE)
Printable Wall Chart on Bioterrorist Agents:


The North Carolina Statewide Program for Infection Control and Epidemiology (SPICE), based in the School of Medicine at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill, has developed a wall chart on bioterrorist agents. It is available in a printer-friendly format and can be freely printed and used for educational purposes. The wall chart developed by SPICE provides the following information for the more likely biological weapons: common presenting signs/symptoms, communicability, decontamination methods, recommended isolation precautions, prophylaxis for exposed persons, and therapy. Diseases included are smallpox, anthrax, plague, and botulism.

United States Air Force
Nuclear, Biologic, and Chemical Warfare (NBC):  A Handbook for Medical Personnel

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